Cation and Anion-Definition, types and examples

Cation and Anion-Definition, types and examples

Hey Study buddies ,Here we are with an another science article of Ions ,captions and anions .This is the most important topic in Chemistry science. Each and every newbies suffers a lot during solving the chemical equation and learning the valancy and solving oxidation number so here we are with this solution. Read this article to get full knowledge about Ions, captions and anions and also their examples lists.

Keep following “supremetutorials” for more such knowledgeable articles regularly.

What is an Ion?


The definition of an ion is a particle, atom, or molecule with an imbalance of electrical charge. Ions are charged. They contain different numbers of protons and electrons. Ions form when atoms move into a more stable electron configuration. Ions are identified by a superscript that shows the sign and size of the electric charge – for example Ca+2. There are two types of ions: cations and anions.

A cation has a net positive electrical charge, which means it has more protons than electrons.

An anion has a net negative electrical charge, which means it has more electrons than protons.

What is a cation?



A cation has more protons than electrons, consequently giving it a net positive charge. For a cation to form, one or more electrons must be lost, typically pulled away by atoms with a stronger affinity for them. The number of electrons lost, and so the charge of the ion, is indicated after the chemical symbol, e.g. silver (Ag) loses one electron to become Ag+, whilst zinc (Zn) loses two electrons to become Zn2+.

What is an anion?



An anion has more electrons than protons, consequently giving it a net negative charge. For an anion to form, one or more electrons must be gained, typically pulled away from other atoms with a weaker affinity for them. The number of electrons gained, and so the charge of the ion, is indicated after the chemical symbol, e.g. chlorine (Cl) gains one electron to become Cl-, whilst oxygen (O) gains two electrons to become O2-.

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Examples of cations include the following:



Calcium: Ca2+
Silver: Ag+
Aluminum: Al3+
Hydronium ion: H3O+
Ammonium: ion NH4+
Mercurous ion: Hg22+
Ferrous Ion: Fe2+
Ferric Ion: Fe 3+


Ions like hydroxide, dichromate, sulfate, and ammonium that contain more than one type of element are called polyatomic ions and are discussed in more detail in another article. Here’s a list of polyatomic ions.

Predicting Cations and Anions based on the Periodic Table
Whether an atom forms a cation or an anion depends on its position on the periodic table. Group 1A and 2A of the periodic table, alkali metals and alkaline earth metals respectively, always form cations. In contrast, Group 17A, which consists of halogens, always forms anions.

Most metals (e.g., iron, lead, gold) form cations, whereas most nonmetals (e.g., oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur) form anions.

Ions: Writing Chemical Formulas
When writing the chemical formula of a compound, cation always comes before anion. For example, in NaBr, sodium is the cation, while bromine is the anion.

Cation and Anion-Definition, types and examples


NaCl – (sodium chloride) cation: Na+, anion: Cl–
LiF – (lithium fluoride) cation: Li+, anion: F–
Mg(OH)2 – (magnesium hydroxide) cation: Mg2+, anion: OH–
K2S – (potassium sulfide) cation: K+, anion: S2-
BeBr2 – (berylliuim bromide) cation: Be2+, anion: Br–


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