CBSE Class 12 Physics- CBSE Board Syllabus

CBSE Physics Syllabus Explanation







I’d be happy to help you understand the Class 12 CBSE Physics syllabus in detail. The syllabus typically covers a variety of topics that can be grouped into these chapters:

  • Electrostatics
  • Current Electricity
  • Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
  • Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Optics
  • Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Atoms and Nuclei
  • Electronic Devices
  • Communication Systems

Electricity Basics



fully detailed explanation with each important terms & definitions of chapter current & electricity class 12

Supremetutorials would be happy to help you with an overview of the chapter on “Current Electricity” for Class 12. This chapter deals with the flow of electric charges, commonly known as electric current, through conductors.





Electric Current:

electrostatics example 2
electrostatics.exapmples

Electric current is the flow of electric charges through a conductor. It is measured in Amperes (A) and is denoted by the symbol ‘I’. Current flows from higher potential to lower potential.



electrostatics.examples1
electrostatics.examples1

Electric Charge (Q):

Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter. It can be positive or negative and is measured in Coulombs (C).

Conductor:

A conductor is a material that allows the easy flow of electric charges. Metals like copper, aluminum, and silver are good conductors.



Insulator:


An insulator is a material that does not allow the easy flow of electric charges. Examples include rubber, plastic, and wood.



Ohm’s Law:


Ohm’s Law states that the current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage across it and inversely proportional to its resistance.
Mathematically, Ohm’s Law is expressed as:




Where:


I is the current in Amperes (A)

V is the voltage in Volts (V)
R is the resistance in Ohms (Ω)

Numerical Example
Numerical Example

RESISTANCE NUMERICAL
RESISTANCE NUMERICAL


Resistance (R):


Resistance is the opposition offered by a material to the flow of electric current. It is measured in Ohms (Ω). Different factors like material, length, cross-sectional area, and temperature affect resistance.

Numerical Example Suppose we have a simple circuit with a resistor connected to a 12-volt (V) power supply. The resistor has a resistance of 4 ohms (Ω). We want to calculate the current flowing th (1)
Numerical Example Suppose we have a simple circuit with a resistor connected to a 12-volt (V) power supply. The resistor has a resistance of 4 ohms (Ω). We want to calculate the current flowing th (1)

Resistivity (ρ):

Resistivity is the inherent property of a material that determines its resistance. It is measured in Ohm-meter (Ω m).

Series and Parallel Combination:



Series Connection: Components are connected end-to-end. The current remains the same, but the voltage divides among the components.

Parallel Connection: Components are connected across the same two points. Voltage remains the same, but the current divides among the components.

Electric Power (P):


Electric power is the rate at which electric energy is consumed or produced. It is measured in Watts (W).

P=IV, where

P is power in Watts,

I is current in Amperes, and

V is voltage in Volts.

Kirchhoff’s Laws:

  • Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL): The sum of currents entering a junction in a circuit is equal to the sum of currents leaving that junction.
  • Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL): The sum of voltages in any closed loop of a circuit is zero.

Ammeter and Voltmeter:



Ammeter: A device used to measure current in a circuit. It is connected in series and has very low resistance.
Voltmeter: A device used to measure voltage across a component. It is connected in parallel and has very high resistance.

Superconductivity:


Superconductivity is a phenomenon where certain materials exhibit zero electrical resistance when cooled below a critical temperature.

CBSE CLASS 12 PHYSICS CHAPTERWISE ANALYSIS

These are some of the key terms and concepts covered in the chapter on Current Electricity for Class 12. Understanding these fundamentals will provide a strong foundation for studying electrical circuits and applications.

Understand The Class 12 CBSE Physics Syllabus In Detail. The Syllabus Typically Covers A Variety Of Topics That Can Be Grouped Into These Chapters:

Electrostatics
Current Electricity
Magnetic Effects Of Current And Magnetism
Electromagnetic Induction And Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic Waves
Optics
Dual Nature Of Radiation And Matter
Atoms And Nuclei
Electronic Devices
Communication Systems
Each Chapter Explores Specific Concepts Related To The Subject. If You’d Like A More Thorough Explanation Of Any Particular Chapter Or Concept, Please Let Me Know!

  • cbse class 12 cbse board physics
Optics:


Optics covers the behavior of light and its interaction with different mediums. Topics include reflection, refraction, lenses, optical instruments, wavefronts, and Huygens’ principle.





Write ” Class 12 Cbse board physics syllabus in detail with chapters full explanation plagiarism free”


I’d be happy to help you understand the Class 12 CBSE Physics syllabus in detail. The syllabus typically covers a variety of topics that can be grouped into these chapters:

Electrostatics
Current Electricity
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic Waves
Optics
Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Atoms and Nuclei
Electronic Devices
Communication Systems
Each chapter explores specific concepts related to the subject. If you’d like a more thorough explanation of any particular chapter or concept, please let me know!







Electrostatics:
This chapter deals with the study of electric charges, their properties, and behavior. It covers topics like Coulomb’s law, electric field and potential, Gauss’s law, electric dipole, and capacitors.

Current Electricity:
This chapter focuses on the flow of electric current in conductors. It covers Ohm’s law, Kirchhoff’s laws, electrical resistance, and various types of circuits including series and parallel.

Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism:
Here, you’ll study the connection between electric current and magnetic fields. This includes topics like the magnetic field due to a current-carrying conductor, Ampere’s law, and magnetic properties of materials.

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents:
This chapter introduces electromagnetic induction and the generation of induced EMF. It also covers topics like Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, self-inductance, mutual inductance, and AC circuits.

Electromagnetic Waves:


Electromagnetic waves like light are discussed in this chapter. You’ll learn about their characteristics, propagation, and properties, including topics like electromagnetic spectrum and their applications.

Optics:


Optics covers the behavior of light and its interaction with different mediums. Topics include reflection, refraction, lenses, optical instruments, wavefronts, and Huygens’ principle.

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter:
This chapter delves into the dual nature of particles, particularly electrons, as both particles and waves. It covers topics like photoelectric effect, de Broglie wavelength, and matter waves.

Atoms and Nuclei:
The structure of atoms and their nuclei are explored here. Topics include atomic models, Bohr’s theory, energy levels, radioactivity, nuclear reactions, and the fundamental forces within nuclei.

Electronic Devices:
This chapter focuses on semiconductor devices and their applications. You’ll study diodes, transistors, logic gates, and digital electronics.

Communication Systems:


This chapter deals with various aspects of communication, including modulation and demodulation of signals. It covers topics like amplitude modulation, frequency modulation, and basic components of a communication system.

Remember, each chapter in the CBSE syllabus builds upon the previous ones and provides a comprehensive understanding of physics concepts. If you have specific questions about any of these chapters or need more detailed explanations, feel free to ask!






I’d be happy to help you understand the Class 12 CBSE Physics syllabus in detail. The syllabus typically covers a variety of topics that can be grouped into these chapters:

Electrostatics
Current Electricity
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic Waves
Optics
Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Atoms and Nuclei
Electronic Devices
Communication Systems
Each chapter explores specific concepts related to the subject. If you’d like a more thorough explanation of any particular chapter or concept, please let me know!





Absolutely, I’d be glad to provide a brief overview of each chapter in the Class 12 CBSE Physics syllabus:

Electrostatics:


This chapter deals with the study of electric charges, their properties, and behavior. It covers topics like Coulomb’s law, electric field and potential, Gauss’s law, electric dipole, and capacitors.

Current Electricity:

This chapter focuses on the flow of electric current in conductors. It covers Ohm’s law, Kirchhoff’s laws, electrical resistance, and various types of circuits including series and parallel.

Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism:


Here, you’ll study the connection between electric current and magnetic fields. This includes topics like the magnetic field due to a current-carrying conductor, Ampere’s law, and magnetic properties of materials.

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents:


This chapter introduces electromagnetic induction and the generation of induced EMF. It also covers topics like Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, self-inductance, mutual inductance, and AC circuits.

Electromagnetic Waves:

Electromagnetic waves like light are discussed in this chapter. You’ll learn about their characteristics, propagation, and properties, including topics like electromagnetic spectrum and their applications.

Optics:

Optics covers the behavior of light and its interaction with different mediums. Topics include reflection, refraction, lenses, optical instruments, wavefronts, and Huygens’ principle.

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter:


This chapter delves into the dual nature of particles, particularly electrons, as both particles and waves. It covers topics like photoelectric effect, de Broglie wavelength, and matter waves.

Atoms and Nuclei:

The structure of atoms and their nuclei are explored here. Topics include atomic models, Bohr’s theory, energy levels, radioactivity, nuclear reactions, and the fundamental forces within nuclei.

Electronic Devices:


This chapter focuses on semiconductor devices and their applications. You’ll study diodes, transistors, logic gates, and digital electronics.

Communication Systems:


This chapter deals with various aspects of communication, including modulation and demodulation of signals. It covers topics like amplitude modulation, frequency modulation, and basic components of a communication system.





Current Electricity:


This chapter focuses on the flow of electric current in conductors. It covers Ohm’s law, Kirchhoff’s laws, electrical resistance, and various types of circuits including series and parallel.

Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism:


Here, you’ll study the connection between electric current and magnetic fields. This includes topics like the magnetic field due to a current-carrying conductor, Ampere’s law, and magnetic properties of materials.

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents:
This chapter introduces electromagnetic induction and the generation of induced EMF. It also covers topics like Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, self-inductance, mutual inductance, and AC circuits.

Electromagnetic Waves:


Electromagnetic waves like light are discussed in this chapter. You’ll learn about their characteristics, propagation, and properties, including topics like electromagnetic spectrum and their applications.

Optics:


Optics covers the behavior of light and its interaction with different mediums. Topics include reflection, refraction, lenses, optical instruments, wavefronts, and Huygens’ principle.



Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter:


This chapter delves into the dual nature of particles, particularly electrons, as both particles and waves. It covers topics like photoelectric effect, de Broglie wavelength, and matter waves.

Atoms and Nuclei:


The structure of atoms and their nuclei are explored here. Topics include atomic models, Bohr’s theory, energy levels, radioactivity, nuclear reactions, and the fundamental forces within nuclei.

Electronic Devices:

This chapter focuses on semiconductor devices and their applications. You’ll study diodes, transistors, logic gates, and digital electronics.

Communication Systems:


This chapter deals with various aspects of communication, including modulation and demodulation of signals. It covers topics like amplitude modulation, frequency modulation, and basic components of a communication system.

Remember, each chapter in the CBSE syllabus builds upon the previous ones and provides a comprehensive understanding of physics concepts. If you have specific questions about any of these chapters or need more detailed explanations, feel free to ask!





Certainly, let’s delve deeper into each chapter of the Class 12 CBSE Physics syllabus:

Electrostatics:



Coulomb’s Law: Describes the force between two point charges. The force is directly proportional to the product of charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Electric Field: The region around a charge where other charges experience a force. Electric field lines depict its direction and strength.
Gauss’s Law: Relates the electric flux through a closed surface to the charge enclosed. Useful for calculating electric fields in symmetric systems.
Electric Potential: The work done to bring a unit positive charge from infinity to a point in an electric field. Potential difference determines how energy moves charges.
Capacitors: Devices that store electric charge and energy. The capacitance depends on the geometry of conductors and dielectric material.
Current Electricity:

Ohm’s Law: Describes the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance (V = IR).
Kirchhoff’s Laws: Rules for analyzing complex circuits. Kirchhoff’s current law deals with junctions, while Kirchhoff’s voltage law deals with loops.
Electrical Resistance: Resistance in a conductor depends on its dimensions, resistivity, and temperature.
Series and Parallel Circuits: Different arrangements of resistors that affect current and voltage distribution.
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism:

Magnetic Field due to Current: A current-carrying conductor produces a magnetic field around it. Right-hand thumb rule helps determine field direction.
Ampere’s Law: Relates magnetic field and current in a closed loop.
Magnetic Properties of Materials: Diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic substances respond differently to magnetic fields.
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents:

Faraday’s Law: Changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF) and hence current in a circuit.
Lenz’s Law: The induced EMF opposes the change causing it.
Self-Inductance: A changing current in a coil induces an EMF in the same coil.
Mutual Inductance: Changing current in one coil induces EMF in another nearby coil.
AC Circuits: Alternating current and voltage, RMS value, reactance, impedance, and power factor.
Electromagnetic Waves:

Electromagnetic Spectrum: Range of electromagnetic waves from radio waves to gamma rays.
Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves: They travel through a vacuum, have a constant speed (speed of light), and exhibit transverse waves.
Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves: Reflect, refract, diffract, and polarize.
Optics:

Reflection: Laws of reflection and image formation in plane mirrors.
Refraction: Snell’s law, refractive index, and image formation in lenses.
Lenses: Convex and concave lenses, lens formula, and magnification.
Optical Instruments: Microscopes, telescopes, and their working principles.
Huygens’ Principle: Each point of a wavefront acts as a source of secondary waves.
Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter:

Photoelectric Effect: Emission of electrons from a metal surface when light of sufficient frequency strikes it. Explained using photons and energy conservation.
de Broglie Wavelength: Particles, especially electrons, exhibit wave-like behavior. Wavelength depends on momentum.
Davisson-Germer Experiment: Confirmed the wave-like nature of electrons using diffraction.
Atoms and Nuclei:

Atomic Models: Bohr’s model explains the hydrogen atom’s spectral lines.
Energy Levels: Electrons occupy discrete energy levels around the nucleus.
Radioactivity: Spontaneous decay of unstable nuclei, involving alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.
Nuclear Reactions: Fusion and fission processes.
Fundamental Forces: Strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational forces within nuclei.
Electronic Devices:

Semiconductors: Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors.
Diodes: P-N junction behavior, forward and reverse biasing.
Transistors: NPN and PNP transistors, transistor as an amplifier and a switch.
Logic Gates: Basic building blocks of digital circuits.
Communication Systems:

Modulation: Process of superimposing the message signal on a carrier signal.
Demodulation: Recovering the original signal from the modulated carrier.
Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Frequency Modulation (FM): Different modulation techniques used in radio communication.

CBSE Physics Syllabus Explanation




Electrostatics
Current Electricity
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic Waves
Optics
Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Atoms and Nuclei
Electronic Devices
Communication Systems
Each chapter explores specific concepts related to the subject. If you’d like a more thorough explanation of any particular chapter or concept, please let me know!




a brief overview of each chapter in the Class 12 CBSE Physics syllabus:

Electrostatics:
This chapter deals with the study of electric charges, their properties, and behavior. It covers topics like Coulomb’s law, electric field and potential, Gauss’s law, electric dipole, and capacitors.

Current Electricity:
This chapter focuses on the flow of electric current in conductors. It covers Ohm’s law, Kirchhoff’s laws, electrical resistance, and various types of circuits including series and parallel.

Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism:
Here, you’ll study the connection between electric current and magnetic fields. This includes topics like the magnetic field due to a current-carrying conductor, Ampere’s law, and magnetic properties of materials.

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents:
This chapter introduces electromagnetic induction and the generation of induced EMF. It also covers topics like Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, self-inductance, mutual inductance, and AC circuits.

Electromagnetic Waves:
Electromagnetic waves like light are discussed in this chapter. You’ll learn about their characteristics, propagation, and properties, including topics like electromagnetic spectrum and their applications.

Optics:
Optics covers the behavior of light and its interaction with different mediums. Topics include reflection, refraction, lenses, optical instruments, wavefronts, and Huygens’ principle.

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter:
This chapter delves into the dual nature of particles, particularly electrons, as both particles and waves. It covers topics like photoelectric effect, de Broglie wavelength, and matter waves.

Atoms and Nuclei:
The structure of atoms and their nuclei are explored here. Topics include atomic models, Bohr’s theory, energy levels, radioactivity, nuclear reactions, and the fundamental forces within nuclei.

Electronic Devices:
This chapter focuses on semiconductor devices and their applications. You’ll study diodes, transistors, logic gates, and digital electronics.

Communication Systems:
This chapter deals with various aspects of communication, including modulation and demodulation of signals. It covers topics like amplitude modulation, frequency modulation, and basic components of a communication system.

Remember, each chapter in the CBSE syllabus builds upon the previous ones and provides a comprehensive understanding of physics concepts. If you have specific questions about any of these chapters or need more detailed explanations, feel free to ask!






Electrostatics:

Coulomb’s Law: Describes the force between two point charges. The force is directly proportional to the product of charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Electric Field: The region around a charge where other charges experience a force. Electric field lines depict its direction and strength.
Gauss’s Law: Relates the electric flux through a closed surface to the charge enclosed. Useful for calculating electric fields in symmetric systems.
Electric Potential: The work done to bring a unit positive charge from infinity to a point in an electric field. Potential difference determines how energy moves charges.
Capacitors: Devices that store electric charge and energy. The capacitance depends on the geometry of conductors and dielectric material.
Current Electricity:

Ohm’s Law: Describes the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance (V = IR).
Kirchhoff’s Laws: Rules for analyzing complex circuits. Kirchhoff’s current law deals with junctions, while Kirchhoff’s voltage law deals with loops.
Electrical Resistance: Resistance in a conductor depends on its dimensions, resistivity, and temperature.
Series and Parallel Circuits: Different arrangements of resistors that affect current and voltage distribution.
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism:

Magnetic Field due to Current: A current-carrying conductor produces a magnetic field around it. Right-hand thumb rule helps determine field direction.
Ampere’s Law: Relates magnetic field and current in a closed loop.
Magnetic Properties of Materials: Diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic substances respond differently to magnetic fields.
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents:

Faraday’s Law: Changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF) and hence current in a circuit.
Lenz’s Law: The induced EMF opposes the change causing it.
Self-Inductance: A changing current in a coil induces an EMF in the same coil.
Mutual Inductance: Changing current in one coil induces EMF in another nearby coil.
AC Circuits: Alternating current and voltage, RMS value, reactance, impedance, and power factor.
Electromagnetic Waves:

Electromagnetic Spectrum: Range of electromagnetic waves from radio waves to gamma rays.
Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves: They travel through a vacuum, have a constant speed (speed of light), and exhibit transverse waves.
Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves: Reflect, refract, diffract, and polarize.
Optics:

Reflection: Laws of reflection and image formation in plane mirrors.
Refraction: Snell’s law, refractive index, and image formation in lenses.
Lenses: Convex and concave lenses, lens formula, and magnification.
Optical Instruments: Microscopes, telescopes, and their working principles.
Huygens’ Principle: Each point of a wavefront acts as a source of secondary waves.
Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter:

Photoelectric Effect: Emission of electrons from a metal surface when light of sufficient frequency strikes it. Explained using photons and energy conservation.
de Broglie Wavelength: Particles, especially electrons, exhibit wave-like behavior. Wavelength depends on momentum.
Davisson-Germer Experiment: Confirmed the wave-like nature of electrons using diffraction.
Atoms and Nuclei:

Atomic Models: Bohr’s model explains the hydrogen atom’s spectral lines.
Energy Levels: Electrons occupy discrete energy levels around the nucleus.
Radioactivity: Spontaneous decay of unstable nuclei, involving alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.
Nuclear Reactions: Fusion and fission processes.
Fundamental Forces: Strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational forces within nuclei.
Electronic Devices:

Semiconductors: Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors.
Diodes: P-N junction behavior, forward and reverse biasing.
Transistors: NPN and PNP transistors, transistor as an amplifier and a switch.
Logic Gates: Basic building blocks of digital circuits.
Communication Systems:

Modulation: Process of superimposing the message signal on a carrier signal.
Demodulation: Recovering the original signal from the modulated carrier.
Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Frequency Modulation (FM): Different modulation techniques used in radio communication.
Remember that these explanations provide a broad understanding of each chapter’s topics. If you need more specific details or further clarification on any concept, feel free to ask!







Certainly, let’s delve into a more detailed explanation of the first chapter: Electrostatics.



1. Electrostatics:



Coulomb’s Law:


Coulomb’s law states that the force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of their magnitudes and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Mathematically, it can be represented as:

F = k * (|q1 * q2|) / r^2

Where:

F is the force between the charges q1 and q2.
k is Coulomb’s constant.
r is the distance between the charges.
Electric Field:
The electric field at a point is the force experienced by a positive test charge placed at that point. It’s defined as the force per unit positive charge. Mathematically, it’s given by:

E = F / q

Where:

E is the electric field.
F is the force experienced by the test charge.
q is the magnitude of the test charge.
Gauss’s Law:
Gauss’s law relates the electric flux through a closed surface to the charge enclosed within the surface. Mathematically, it’s expressed as:

Φ = q / ε₀

Where:

Φ is the electric flux.
q is the total charge enclosed.
ε₀ is the vacuum permittivity.
Electric Potential:
The electric potential at a point is the work done in bringing a unit positive charge from infinity to that point. It’s measured in volts (V). The potential difference (voltage) between two points is given by:

V = W / q

Where:

V is the potential difference.
W is the work done.
q is the magnitude of the charge.
Capacitors:
Capacitors store electric charge and energy. The capacitance (C) of a capacitor is defined as the ratio of the charge stored (q) to the potential difference (V) across its plates:

C = q / V

Capacitance depends on the geometry of the conductors and the material between them. It’s measured in farads (F).

Example:
Let’s consider two point charges, q1 = 4 μC and q2 = -3 μC, placed 2 meters apart. Using Coulomb’s law, we can calculate the force between them:

F = k * (|q1 * q2|) / r^2
F = (9 × 10^9 N m²/C²) * (|4 × 10^-6 C * -3 × 10^-6 C|) / (2 m)^2
F = 13.5 N

This force would be attractive since the charges have opposite signs.


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